Masculina sex hormones. The ovaries and adrenal gland in women also produce androgens, but in small quantities.
The absence of sperm and all types of semen related cells in the seminal fluid.
A macro and microscopic examination of semen (to evaluate the number of sperm (count), the percentage of moving sperm (motility), the size and shape of the sperm (morphology) and the presence of other cells...) that orients the andrologist about possible disfunctions of the masculine reproductive apparatus.
The protective structure around the top half of the head of the sperm. The acrosome contains enzymes that enable the sperm to penetrate the egg.
The second stage of capacitation, when a sperm sheds its outer membrane to expose receptors that interact with the egg's zona pellucida to initiate fertilization. assisted reproductive technology (ART) Procedures involving retrieval of eggs, and the enhancement of eggs and sperm outside the body. It includes procedures such as gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), in vitro fertilization (IVF), and zygote intrafallopian transfer/tubal embryo transfer (ZIFT/TET).
A term describing a woman who has menstruated at one time, but who has not had a period for six months or more.
Each cell within the developing embryo.
Series of structural and biochemical changes that a sperm goes through naturally to be able to penetrate and fertilize on oocyte which occurs once in contact with certain fluids in the cervix, uterus and Fallopian tubes.
A genetic study of the embryo before its transfer to the uterus and possible implantation. The embryos are incubated until they present 8 cells, at which time, one or two of them are drawn out (blastomere biopsy) and analysed to look for any genetic alterations. Only the embryos that do not present genetic alterations are transferred. All genetic alterations cannot be ruled out and we cannot always acheive a completely reliable diagnosis, as not all embryos withstand the biopsy, therefore this process will only be performed when it is considered absolutely necessary.
A anormal pregnancy that occurs when the embryo implants outside the uterus; most likely in one of the fallopian tubes, in an ovary or in the abdominal cavity.
The first half of the menstrual cycle, from menstruation until ovulation. Estrogens are produced which increases the vaginal discharge and produces a more liquid cervical mucus.
The entrance of a sperminto an oocyte. In vitro fertilization: that which is not produced "by nature". In other words, when the oocyte and sperm are united outside of the mother's body.
Masculine and feminine reproductive cells: the oocyte and sperm.
A technique that may be used in lieu of in vitro fertilization for women with patent tubes. After egg retrieval the eggs are mixed with the husband's sperm and then injected through the fimbria into the woman's fallopian tubes for in vivo fertilization.
In the male the testicular cell that divides to produce the immature sperm cells; in the woman the ovarian cell that divides to form the egg (ovum). The male germ cell remains intact throughout the man's reproductive life; the woman uses up her germ cells at the rate of about one thousand per menstrual cycle, although usually only one egg matures each cycle.
An inherited condition in which the testicles have no germ cells. Since men with this condition have normal Leydig cells, they will develop secondary sex characteristics. May also be caused by large and/or prolonged exposure to toxins or radiation.
An assisted reproduction technique, not very frequently used, that involves the injection of previously aspired oocytes directly into the fallopian tube(s) along with the husband's capacitated sperm.
GnRH-like hormones that block the body's release of both FSH and LH. Through blocking LH production, GnRH agonists are capable of improving a woman's response to fertility drugs and may be used in combination with fertility hormones to promote an enhanced response in women who demonstrate resistance to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. In the United States, GnRH agonists are also known as Lupron, Synarel, and Nafarelin.
A generic term referring to both urinary-derived FSH and/or LH product (known as menotropins) and recombinant DNA-derived FSH and LH, as well as the naturally occurring hormones LH and FSH, which are released by the pituitary gland to stimulate the testicles in the man and the ovaries in the woman.
The ovaries and testicles.
A technique in which the zona pellucida (outer shell of the egg) is chemically or mechanically thinned prior to embryo transfer in order to improve the likelihood of subsequent hatching.
A hormone, produced by the implanting embryo (and subsequently also by the placenta), whose presence in the woman's blood indicates a possible pregnancy; hCG may also be administered to women undergoing stimulation with hMG alone or in combination with other fertility drugs in order to trigger ovulation. Injections of hCG may also be administered to encourage the production of progesterone by the corpus luteum in the hope of promoting implantation following embryo transfer and thereby reducing the incidence of spontaneous miscarriage in a pregnancy resulting from IVF. The hormone hCG is derived from the urine of pregnant women.
A condition in which the pituitary gland secretes too much prolactin. Prolactin can suppress LH and FSH production, reduce sex drive in the man, and directly suppress ovarian function in the woman.
A potentially life-threatening side effect of Pergonal ovulation induction treatment. Arises when too many follicles develop and hCG is given to release the eggs. May be prevented by withholding the hCG injection when ultrasound monitoring indicates that too many follicles have matured.
A form of micromanipulation whereby a single sperm is captured in a thin glass needle and injected directly into the ooplasm of the egg. Usually used to assist fertilization in couples suffering from severe sperm dysfunction.
The process that occurs when the embryo burrows into the endometrium and eventually connects to the mother's circulatory system.
The embedding of the embryo into tissue so it can establish contact with the mother's blood supply for nourishment. Implantation usually occurs in the lining of the uterus; however, in an ectopic pregnancy it may occur elsewhere in the body.
A test performed to analyze chromosomes for the presence of genetic defects
A surgical procedure using the laparoscope. Laparoscopy may be used for egg retrieval, diagnostic evaluation, reparative surgery, and various other fertility procedures. Because of its dual abilities to enable the physician to assess tubal patency and visualize the abdominal cavity, laparoscopy has largely replaced hysterosalpingography as the most popular method of assessing the anatomical integrity of the reproductive tract (See also augmented laparoscopy). Once the favored procedure for egg retrieval, too, laparoscopic egg retrieval has been supplanted by ultrasound-guided egg retrieval.
The testicular cell that produces the male hormone testosterone. The Leydig cell is stimulated by LH from the pituitary gland.
The second half of the menstrual cycle, which begins after ovulation until the next menstruatio. the corpus luteum produce large quantities of progesterone and the body temperature rises.
The process of reducing and dividing the chromosomes in both the sperm and egg, which occurs immediately prior to and during fertilization.
The period of a woman's life that begins with the total cessation of menstruation, usually between the ages of 40 and 55.
The cyclical shedding of the uterine lining in response to stimulation from estrogen and progesterone.
Interruption of pregnancy after having seen the sac and heartbeat in an ultrasound.
Infrequent menstrual periods.
A sperm count below 20 million; a low sperm count; a sperm count low enough to cause a fertility problem.
Two white, almond-sized structures, the female counterpart of the testicles, that are attached to each side of the pelvis adjacent to the ends of the fallopian tubes; the ovaries both release eggs and discharge sex hormones into the bloodstream.
A condition found in women who don't ovulate, characterized by excessive production of androgens (male sex hormones) and the presence of cysts in the ovaries. Though PCO can be without symptoms, some include excessive weight gain, acne and excessive hair growth.
A primary female sex hormone produced by the corpus luteum that induces secretory changes in the glands of the endometrium. Progesterone may also be given by injection or in the form of vaginal suppositories to enhance implantation and reduce the risk of miscarriage.
A hormone produced by the brain that may influence the activity of FSH on the ovaries.
The fluid portion of the ejaculate consisting of secretions from the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and several other glands in the male reproductive tract. The semen provides nourishment and protection for the sperm and a medium in which the sperm can travel to the woman's vagina. Semen may also refer to the entire ejaculate, including the sperm.
Situation in which an infertile woman uses someone else's uterus to carry a child to term for her. Surrogation can be divided into (1) cases in which the surrogate mother contributes biologically to the offspring by providing her own eggs (classic surrogacy), and (2) cases in which the surrogate does not contribute biologically and therefore must undergo IVF (gestational surrogacy).
The male counterparts of the female ovaries; located in the scrotum, the testicles produce sperm and male hormones such as testosterone.
A minor surgical procedure used to take a small sample of testicular tissue for microscopic examination; a test used to diagnose male fertility problems when no other means is available (this is because the biopsy procedure itself may cause testicular damage).
A muscular organ that enlarges during pregnancy from its normal pearlike size to accommodate a full-term pregnancy.
A dilation of the veins that carry blood out of the scrotum. The resulting swollen vessels surrounding the testicles create a pool of stagnant blood, which elevates the scrotal temperature. A major cause of male infertility.
The placement of one or more zygotes into the outer third of the fallopian tube(s) during laparoscopy or minilaparotomy in the hope that the resulting embryo(s) will travel to the uterus and implant successfully.